Resolve Cryptographic Exception in IIS
An IIS deployed application is throwing a
CryptographicException with the message
System cannot find the specified file. Not a very useful message now is it?!
This is most likely because the Windows Cryptographic Service Provider was trying to store or load a key for a certificate in the user store, and since a profile was not available, a cryptographic context was not available. This means the Process model has the
Load User Profile set to false.
⚠️ The Load User Profile setting only applies to user accounts. Service Accounts like NETWORK SERVICE and ApplicationPoolIdentity have special handling.
What exactly happens when I set Load User Profile in the IIS pool?
The user profile is loaded. This includes their cryptographic store, environment variables such as %TEMP%, and other ones.
To enable the setting
Go to the IIS Manager
Go to the application pool instance
Click advanced settings
Under the Process model, set Load User Profile to true
Recycle the application pool and restart the linked web application for changes to reflect